Forms Of Government

Forms of government

  • Adhocracy
    Adhocracy is a flexible, adaptable and informal form of organization that is defined by a lack of formal structure. It operates in an opposite fashion to a bureaucracy.
  • Aesymnetes
    Aesymnetes was the name of an ancient Greek elected office similar to, and sometimes indistinguishable from, tyrant. The plural is aesymnetai.
  • Algorithmic regulation
    Algorithmic regulation is an alternative form of government where the advantages and usages of computer algorithms are applied to regulations and law enforcement. Written laws are not replaced but stressed to test its efficiency. It was coined by Tim O'Reilly, Founder and CEO of O'Reilly Media Inc.
  • Anacyclosis
    The political doctrine of anacyclosis is a cyclical theory of political evolution. The theory of anacyclosis is based upon the Greek typology of constitutional forms of rule by the one, the few, and the many.
  • Androcracy
    Androcracy is a form of government in which the government rulers are male. The males, especially fathers, have the central roles of political leadership, moral authority, and control of property. It is also sometimes called a phallocracy, phallocratic, andrarchy, or an androcentric society.
  • Anocracy
    An anocracy is a government regime featuring inherent qualities of political instability and ineffectiveness, as well as an "incoherent mix of democratic and autocratic traits and practices".
  • Aristocracy Aristocracy
    Aristocracy is a form of government that places power in the hands of a small, privileged ruling class. The term derives from the Greek aristokratia, meaning "rule of the best".
  • Authoritarianism Authoritarianism
    Authoritarianism is a form of government characterized by strong central power and limited political freedoms. Individual freedoms are subordinate to the state and there is no constitutional accountability under an authoritarian regime.
  • Autocracy
    An autocracy is a system of government in which supreme power is concentrated in the hands of one person, whose decisions are subject to neither external legal restraints nor regularized mechanisms of popular control. Absolute monarchy and dictatorship are the main historical forms of autocracy.
  • Bankocracy
    Bankocracy or trapezocracy is a polemic term referring to the excessive power or influence of banks on public policy-making. It can also refer to a form of government where financial institutions rule society.
  • Capitalist republic
    A capitalist republic is a socialist propaganda term describing a concept of government that is antithetical to socialist thought. They hold that while a socialist republic is a "dictatorship of the proletariat", a capitalist republic is freedom of the common man to succeed on his own.
  • Capitalist state
    The capitalist state is the state, its functions, and the form of organization it takes within capitalist socioeconomic systems.
  • Central government
    A central government is the government of a nation-state and is a characteristic of a unitary state.
  • Centralized government
    A centralized government is one in which power or legal authority is exerted or coordinated by a de facto political executive to which federal states, local authorities, and smaller units are considered subject.
  • Christian republic
    A Christian republic is a governmental system that comprises both Christianity and republicanism. Jean-Jacques Rousseau and John Locke considered the idea to be an impossibility and a self-contradiction, but for different reasons.
  • Christian state
    A Christian state is a country that recognizes a form of Christianity as its official religion and often has a state church, which is a Christian denomination that supports the government and is supported by the government.
  • City commission government
    City commission government is a form of local government in the United States. In a city commission government, voters elect a small commission, typically, from five to seven members, on a plurality-at-large voting basis.
  • Coconstitutionalism
    Coconstitutionalism is where two institutional cultures exist in a complex semi-autonomous relationship to each other.
  • Collective leadership
    Collective leadership is a distribution of power within an organisational structure. It is considered an ideal form of ruling a communist party, both within and outside a socialist state. Collective leadership is now also being used as a term as a form of corporate management thinking.
  • Collective leadership in the Soviet Union Collective leadership in the Soviet Union
    Collective leadership or Collectivity of leadership, was considered an ideal form of governance in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and other socialist states espousing communism.
  • Commonwealth
    Commonwealth is a traditional English term for a political community founded for the common good. Historically it has sometimes been synonymous with "republic".
  • Commonwealth (U.S. state) Commonwealth (U.S. state)
    Commonwealth is a designation used by four of the 50 states of the United States in their full official state names: the Commonwealth of Kentucky, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and the Commonwealth of Virginia.
  • Communist state Communist state
    A communist state is a state that is usually administered and governed by a single party representing the proletariat, guided by Marxist–Leninist philosophy, with the aim of achieving communism.
  • Confederation Confederation
    A confederation is a union of sovereign states, united for purposes of common action often in relation to other states.
  • Consensus government in Canada
    Consensus government is a form of consensus democracy government in Canada in the Northwest Territories, Nunavut, as well as Nunatsiavut, an autonomous area in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador.
  • Consociationalism
    Consociationalism is often viewed as synonymous with power-sharing, although it is technically only one form of power-sharing.
  • Constitutional dictatorship
    A constitutional dictatorship is a form of government in which dictatorial powers are exercised during an emergency. The dictator is not absolute and the dictator's authority remains limited by the constitution.
  • Constitutional liberalism
    Constitutional liberalism describes a form of government that upholds the principles of classical liberalism and the rule of law. It differs from liberal democracy in that it is not about the method of selecting government.
  • Constitutional monarchy Constitutional monarchy
    A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises their authorities in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution.
  • Constitutional theocracy
    The phrase constitutional theocracy describes a form of elected government in which one single religion is granted an authoritative central role in the legal and political system.
  • Continuismo
    Continuismo is the practice by incumbents of keeping themselves in office beyond the legal term. Some Latin American heads of state indefinitely extend their rule by way of reducing or abolishing term limits, via constitutional revision.
  • Corporate republic
    A corporate republic is a theoretical form of government occasionally hypothesized in works of science fiction, though some historical states such as medieval Florence might be said to have been governed as corporate republics.
  • Corporatocracy
    Corporatocracy, is a recent term used to refer to an economic and political system controlled by corporations or corporate interests. It is most often used today as a term to describe the current economic situation in a particular country, especially the United States.
  • Council-manager government
    The council–manager government form is one of two predominant forms of local government in the United States; the other common form of local government is the mayor–council government form, which characteristically occurs in large cities.
  • Counterintelligence state Counterintelligence state
    Counterintelligence state is a state where state security service penetrates and permeates all societal institutions including the military.
  • Crowned republic
    A crowned republic is a form of parliamentary democracy and constitutional monarchy in which the monarch's role is predominantly ceremonial in practice, and where all of the monarch's royal prerogatives are prescribed by custom and law in such a way that the monarch has limited discretion over...
  • Cyberocracy
    In futurology, cyberocracy describes a hypothetical form of government that rules by the effective use of information.
  • Defensive democracy
    Defensive democracy is the philosophy that members of a democratic society believe it necessary to limit some rights and freedoms, in order to protect the institutions of the democracy.
  • Democratic republic Democratic republic
    A democratic republic is both a republic and a democracy.
  • Despotism Despotism
    Despotism is a form of government in which a single entity rules with absolute power. Normally, that entity is an individual, the despot, as in an autocracy, but societies which limit respect and power to specific groups have also been called despotic.
  • Devolution Devolution
    Devolution is the statutory delegation of powers from the central government of a sovereign state to govern at a subnational level, such as a regional or local level. It is a form of administrative decentralization. Devolved territories have the power to make legislation relevant to the area.
  • Diarchy
    A diarchy or duumvirate is a form of government characterized by corule, with two people ruling a polity together either lawfully or by collusion and force. The leaders of such a system are usually known as corulers.
  • Dictablanda Dictablanda
    Dictablanda is a dictatorship in which civil liberties are allegedly preserved rather than destroyed. The word dictablanda is a portmanteau of the Spanish words dictadura and blanda. There is an element of punning in the expression, involved in that blanda replaces dura, meaning "hard".
  • Dictatorship Dictatorship
    Dictatorship is a form of government in which a country or a group of countries is ruled by one person or by a polity, and power is exercised through various mechanisms to ensure that the entity's power remains strong.
  • Duchy
    A duchy is a country, territory, fief, or domain ruled by a duke or duchess. The term is used almost exclusively in Europe, where in the present day there is no sovereign duchy left.
  • Electocracy
    An electocracy is a political system where citizens are able to vote for their government but cannot participate directly in governmental decision making and where the government does not share any power.
  • Embedded democracy
    Embedded democracy is a form of government in which democratic governance is secured by democratic partial regimes.
  • Emirate Emirate
    An emirate is a political territory that is ruled by a dynastic Islamic monarch styled emir. It also means principality.
  • Enlightened despotism
    Enlightened despotism referred to a leader's espousal of "Enlightenment ideas and principles" to enhance the leader's power. The concept originated during the Enlightenment period in the 18th and early 19th centuries.
  • Ergatocracy
    Ergatocracy is a type of government dominated by the labour and solidarities similar to communist beliefs. It refers to a society ruled by the working class. The term was coined by Eden and Cedar Paul in their book Creative Revolution: A Study of Communist Ergatocracy.
  • Ethnarch
    Ethnarch, pronounced, the anglicized form of ethnarches, refers generally to political leadership over a common ethnic group or homogeneous kingdom. The word is derived from the Greek words and. Strong's Concordance gives the definition of 'ethnarch' as "the governor of a district."
  • Ethnic democracy
    Ethnic democracy is a political system that combines a structured ethnic dominance with democratic, political and civil rights for all. Both the dominant ethnic group and the minority ethnic groups have citizenship and are able to fully participate in the political process.
  • Ethnocracy
    An ethnocracy is a type of political structure in which the state apparatus is appropriated by a dominant ethnic group to further its interests, power and resources.
  • Family dictatorship
    A hereditary dictatorship, or family dictatorship, in political science terms a personalistic regime, is a form of dictatorship that occurs in a nominally or formally republican or socialist regime, but operates in practice like an absolute monarchy, in that political power passes within the...
  • Federacy
    A federacy is a form of government where one or several substate units enjoy considerably more independence than the majority of the substate units. To some extent, such an arrangement can be considered to be similar to asymmetric federalism.
  • Federal monarchy
    A federal monarchy is a federation of states with a single monarch as over-all head of the federation, but retaining different monarchs, or a non-monarchical system of government, in the various states joined to the federation.
  • Federal republic Federal republic
    A federal republic is a federation of states with a republican form of government. At its core, the literal meaning of the word republic when used to reference a form of government means: "a country that is governed by elected representatives and by an elected leader rather than by a king or queen".
  • Forms of government
  • Free state (government) Free state (government)
    Free state is a term occasionally used in the official titles of some states.
  • Futarchy
    Futarchy is a form of government proposed by economist Robin Hanson, in which elected officials define measures of national welfare, and prediction markets are used to determine which policies will have the most positive effect.
  • Gatekeeper state
    The concept of a gatekeeper state was introduced by the Historian of Africa Frederick Cooper in his book Africa Since 1940: The Past of the Present.
  • Geniocracy Geniocracy
    Geniocracy is the framework for a system of government which was first proposed by Raël in 1977 and which advocates problem-solving and creative intelligence as criteria for governance.
  • Gerontocracy
    A gerontocracy is a form of oligarchical rule in which an entity is ruled by leaders who are significantly older than most of the adult population.
  • Government by itineration
    Government by itineration is a method of governing by which monarchs travel around their jurisdictions in order to check what is happening. It was a common method of government in Europe in the Middle Ages.
  • Government of the Inca Empire Government of the Inca Empire
    The Tawantinsuyu or Inca Empire was a centralized bureaucracy. It drew upon the administrative forms and practices of previous Andean civilizations such as the Wari Empire and Tiwanaku, and had in common certain practices with its contemporary rivals, notably the Chimor.
  • Grand duchy Grand duchy
    A grand duchy is a country or territory whose official head of state or ruler is a monarch bearing the title of grand duke or grand duchess.
  • Guided democracy
    Guided democracy, also called managed democracy, is a formally democratic government that functions as a de facto autocracy. Such governments are legitimated by elections that are free and fair but lack the ability to change the state's policies, motives, and goals.
  • Hegemony Hegemony
    Hegemony is the political, economic, or military predominance or control of one state over others. In ancient Greece, hegemony denoted the politico–military dominance of a city-state over other city-states. The dominant state is known as the hegemon.
  • Herrenvolk democracy
    Herrenvolk democracy is a system of government in which only the majority ethnic group participates in government, while minority groups are disenfranchised. Similar concepts include ethnic democracy and ethnocracy.
  • Hierocracy
    Theocracy or ecclesiocracy is a form of government in which a deity is the source from which all authority derives. The Oxford English Dictionary has this definition...
  • Hollow state
    A hollow state is a state which is generally considered to have the appearance of a properly functioning democratic nation or state. This state or nation has democratic elections, government laws, rules, regulations and standards. It has an agencies, police, taxation, ministries and a military.
  • Ideocracy
    Ideocracy is a term describing government or social management based on a monistic ideology.
  • Inclusive Management
    Inclusive Management is a pattern of practices by public managers that facilitate the inclusion of public employees, experts, the public, and politicians in collaboratively addressing public problems or concerns of public interest.
  • Inclusive management
    Inclusive management is a pattern of practices by public managers that facilitate the inclusion of public employees, experts, the public, and politicians in collaboratively addressing public problems or concerns of public interest.
  • Inverted totalitarianism
    Inverted totalitarianism is a term coined by political philosopher Sheldon Wolin in 2003 to describe the emerging form of government of the United States. Wolin analysed the United States as increasingly turning into a managed democracy.
  • Islamic state
    An Islamic state is a type of government primarily based on the application of shari'a, dispensation of justice, maintenance of law and order. From the early years of Islam, numerous governments have been founded as "Islamic".
  • Isocracy
    An isocracy is a form of government where all citizens have equal political power. The term derives from Greek ἴσος meaning "equal" and κρατεῖν meaning "to have power", or "to rule".
  • Junta (governing body)
    Junta is a Spanish and Portuguese term for a civil deliberative or administrative council. In English, it predominantly refers to the government of an authoritarian state run by high ranking officers of a military.
  • Kakistocracy
    A kakistocracy is a system of government which is run by the worst, least qualified, or most unscrupulous citizens. The word was coined as early as the 17th century. It was also used by English author Thomas Love Peacock in 1829, but gained significant usage in the 21st century.
  • Khanate
    Khanate or Khaganate is a political entity ruled by a Khan or Khagan. In modern Turkish, the word used is kağanlık or hanlık. In Mongolian the word khanlig is used, as in "Khereidiin khanlig" meaning the Khanate of the Keraites.
  • Kleptocracy
    Kleptocracy from Ancient Greek κλέπτης, κλέπτω, from Proto-Indo-Europeanklep-; and from the Ancient Greek suffix -κρατία, from κράτος is a government with corrupt leaders that use their power to exploit the people and natural resources of their own territory in order to extend their personal...
  • Kritarchy
    Kritarchy is a system of rule by judges in the tribal confederacy of ancient Israel during the period of time described in the Book of Judges, following Joshua's conquest of Canaan and prior to the united monarchy under Saul.
  • Kyriarchy
    Kyriarchy, pronounced, is a social system or set of connecting social systems built around domination, oppression, and submission.
  • Liberal democracy Liberal democracy
    Liberal democracy is a liberal political ideology and a form of government in which representative democracy operates under the principles of classical liberalism. It is also called western democracy.
  • Logocracy
    Logocracy is the rule of, or government by, words. It is derived from the Greek —"word" and from —to "govern". The term can be used either positively, ironically, or negatively.
  • Mafia state
    A mafia state is a state system where the government is tied with organized crime, including when government officials, police, and/or military take part in illicit enterprises. The term mafia is a reference to any organized crime groups strongly connected with the authorities.
  • Majlis Majlis
    Is an Arabic term meaning "a place of sitting", used in the context of "council", to describe various types of special gatherings among common interest groups be it administrative, social or religious in countries with linguistic or cultural connections to Islamic countries.
  • Matriarchy
    Matriarchy is a social system in which females hold the primary power positions in roles of political leadership, moral authority, social privilege and control of property at the specific exclusion of men - at least to a large degree.
  • Mayor-council government
    The mayor–council government system is one of the two most common forms of local government in the United States. It is the one most frequently adopted in large cities, although the other form, council–manager government, is the typical local government form of more municipalities.
  • Meritocracy
    Meritocracy is a political philosophy stating that power should be vested in individuals almost exclusively based on ability and talent. Advancement in such a system is based on performance measured through examination and/or demonstrated achievement in the field where it is implemented.
  • Might makes right
    Might makes right is an aphorism with several potential meanings...
  • Monarchy Monarchy
    A monarchy is a form of government in which a group, generally a family representing a dynasty, embodies the country's national identity and its head, the monarch, exercises the role of sovereignty.
  • Multi-party system
    A multi-party system is a system in which multiple political parties across the political spectrum run for national election, and all have the capacity to gain control of government offices, separately or in coalition.
  • Nanny state Nanny state
    Nanny state is a conservative term of British origin that conveys a view that a government or its policies are overprotective or interfering unduly with personal choice. The term "nanny state" likens government to the role that a nanny has in child rearing.
  • Netocracy
    Netocracy was a term invented by the editorial board of the American technology magazine Wired in the early 1990s.
  • New Republican Society
    The New Republican Society is a Dutch republican society, founded in January 1998 in Amsterdam by Ewout Irrgang and Elisabeth van der Steenhoven, as opposed to the Republican Society that only allows members by co-option.
  • Night-watchman state
    In libertarian political philosophy, a night-watchman state is a model of a State whose only functions are to provide its citizens with the military, the police, and courts, thus protecting them from aggression, theft, breach of contract, and fraud and enforcing property laws.
  • Non-partisan democracy
    Nonpartisan democracy is a system of representative government or organization such that universal and periodic elections take place without reference to political parties.
  • Noocracy
    Noocracy, or "aristocracy of the wise", as defined by Plato, is a social and political system that is "based on the priority of human mind", according to Vladimir Vernadsky. It was also further developed in the writings of Pierre Teilhard de Chardin.
  • Ochlocracy
    Ochlocracy or mob rule is the rule of government by mob or a mass of people, or, the intimidation of legitimate authorities.
  • Oligarchy
    Oligarchy is a form of power structure in which power rests with a small number of people. These people might be distinguished by nobility, wealth, family ties, education or corporate, religious or military control.
  • One-party state
    A one-party state, single-party state, one-party system, single-party system is a type of state in which one political party has the right to form the government, usually based on the existing constitution.
  • Panarchy
    Panarchy, coined by Paul Emile de Puydt in 1860, is a form of governance that would encompass all others. The Oxford English Dictionary lists the noun as "chiefly poetic" with the meaning "a universal realm," citing an 1848 attestation by Philip James Bailey, "the starry panarchy of space".
  • Pantarchy
    Pantarchy is a social theory proposed by Stephen Pearl Andrews in the 19th century.
  • Parliament Parliament
    In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative, elected body of government. Generally, a modern parliament has three functions: representing the electorate, making laws, and overseeing the government via hearings and inquiries.
  • Parliamentary republic Parliamentary republic
    A parliamentary republic is a republic that operates under a parliamentary system of government where the executive branch derives its legitimacy from and is accountable to the legislature. There are a number of variations of parliamentary republics.
  • Parliamentary system Parliamentary system
    A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament.
  • Particracy
    Particracy is a de facto form of government where one or more political parties dominate the political process, rather than citizens and/or individual politicians.
  • Patriarchy
    In sociology, patriarchy is a social system in which males hold primary power and predominate in roles of political leadership, moral authority, social privilege and control of property. In the domain of the family, fathers or father-figures hold authority over women and children.
  • People's democracy (Marxism-Leninism)
    People's democracy was a theoretical concept within Marxism–Leninism which developed after World War II, which allowed in theory for a multi-class, multi-party democracy on the pathway to socialism.
  • Plantocracy
    A plantocracy, also known as a slavocracy, is a ruling class, political order or government composed of plantation owners.
  • Plato's five regimes
    The Classical Greek philosopher Plato discusses five types of regimes. They are Aristocracy, Timocracy, Oligarchy, Democracy, and Tyranny. Plato also assigns a man to each of these regimes to illustrate what they stand for. The tyrannical man would represent Tyranny, for example.
  • Plutocracy
    Plutocracy or plutarchy, is a form of oligarchy and defines a society ruled or controlled by the small minority of the wealthiest citizens. The first known use of the term was in 1631.
  • Police state Police state
    Police state is a term denoting a government that exercises power arbitrarily through the power of the police force.
  • Political institutions of ancient Rome
    Various lists regarding the political institutions of ancient Rome are presented. Each entry in a list is a link to a separate article. Categories included are: constitutions, laws, and legislatures; state offices and office holders; political factions and social ranks.
  • Political union Political union
    A political union is a type of state which is composed of or created out of smaller states. The process is called unification. Unifications of states that used to be together and are reuniting is referred to as reunification.
  • Pontificate
    Pontificate is the form of government used in Vatican City. The word come to English from French and do in other words simply means Papacy or "To perform the functions of the Pope or other high official in the Church."
  • Presidential system Presidential system
    A presidential system is a democratic and republican system of government where a head of government leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch. This head of government is in most cases also the head of state, which is called president.
  • Prime ministerial government
    A prime ministerial government is a government where the prime minister is dominant in terms of the executive. As the prime minister is, by definition, a member of a cabinet – this form of government is often a development from cabinet government.
  • Principality
    A principality can either be a monarchical feudatory or a sovereign state, ruled or reigned over by a monarch with the title of prince or by a monarch with another title within the generic use of the term prince.
  • Proprietary community
    "A community is an occupation by two or more persons of a place divided into private and common areas according to a system of relations which defines and allocates responsibility for the performance of all activities that might be required for its continuity."
  • Puppet state
    A puppet state is a metaphor of a state that is supposedly independent but is in fact dependent upon an outside power. It is nominally sovereign but effectively controlled by a foreign or otherwise alien power, for reasons such as financial interests.
  • Rechtsstaat Rechtsstaat
    Rechtsstaat is a doctrine in continental European legal thinking, originating in German jurisprudence, that can be translated as "legal state", "state of law", "state of justice", "state of rights", or "state based on justice and integrity".
  • Regional state
    A regional state is a unitary state in which authority has been decentralized to subnational regions. This term has yet to become widely used. One such example of a state is Ethiopia, which has been divided into ethnic-based regions.
  • Republic Republic
    A republic is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter" – not the private concern or property of the rulers – and where offices of state are elected or appointed, rather than inherited. It is a form of government under which the head of state is not a monarch.
  • Right-wing dictatorship
    A right-wing dictatorship is an authoritarian regime whose policy could be called rightist.
  • Rule by decree
    Rule by decree is a style of governance allowing quick, unchallenged creation of law by a single person or group, and is used primarily by dictators, absolute monarchs and military leaders.
  • Rule of law Rule of law
    The rule of law is the legal principle that law should govern a nation, as opposed to being governed by decisions of individual government officials.
  • Rump state
    A rump state is the remnant of a once-larger state, left with a reduced territory in the wake of secession, annexation, irredentism, occupation, decolonization, or a successful coup d'état or revolution on part of its former territory.
  • Scientocracy
    Scientocracy is the practice of basing public policies on science.
  • Sectarian democracy
    Sectarian democracies are multiethnic/multifactional countries where the ethnic group with the greatest power has a democratic government that does not allow minorities to participate in the democratic process of that nation.There are several countries that highlight this sort of government.The...
  • Self-governance
    Self-governance, self-government, or autonomy, is an abstract concept that applies to several scales of organization.
  • Semi-democracy
    The term semi-democracy is used to refer to a state that shares both democratic and authoritarian features.
  • Semi-parliamentary system
    A semi-parliamentary system is a classification of systems of government proposed by Maurice Duverger, in which citizens directly elect at the same time the legislature and the prime minister, possibly with an electoral law ensuring the existence of a parliamentary majority for the prime...
  • Semi-presidential system Semi-presidential system
    A semi-presidential system is a system of government in which a president exists alongside a prime minister and a cabinet, with the latter two being responsible to the legislature of a state.
  • Shadow government (conspiracy)
    The shadow government is a family of conspiracy theories based on the notion that real and actual political power resides not with publicly elected representatives but with private individuals who are exercising power behind the scenes, beyond the scrutiny of democratic institutions.
  • Socialist state
    A socialist state or socialist republic refers to any state that is constitutionally dedicated to the establishment of socialism.
  • Sociocracy
    Sociocracy, also known as dynamic governance, is a system of governance that applies the principles and methods of sociology, cybernetics, and general management theory.
  • Sole commissioner
    In local government in the United States, sole commissioner government is a county commission with only one seat. The sole commissioner typically holds all legislative and executive powers in the county.
  • Sortition Sortition
    In governance, sortition selects political officials as a random sample from a larger pool of candidates. The logic behind the sortition process originates from the idea that "power corrupts."
  • Soviet democracy
    Soviet democracy is a political system in which the rule of the population by directly elected soviets is exercised. The councils are directly responsible to their electors and are bound by their instructions.
  • Soviet republic (system of government)
    A soviet republic is a term used to describe a republic in which the government is formed of soviets and politics are based on soviet democracy and democratic centralism.
  • State government
    A state government or provincial government is the government of a country subdivision in a federal form of government, which shares political power with the federal or national government.
  • Stratocracy
    A stratocracy is a form of government headed by military chiefs. It is not the same as a military dictatorship or military junta where the military's political power is not enforced or even supported by other laws.
  • Sultanism
    In political science, sultanism is a form of authoritarian government characterized by the extreme personal presence of the ruler in all elements of governance.
  • Superstate
    A superstate is defined as "a large and powerful State formed when several smaller countries unite", "A large and powerful state formed from a federation or union of nations".
  • Technocracy
    Technocracy is a system of governance where decision-makers are selected on the basis of technological knowledge. Scientists, engineers, technologists, or experts in any field, would compose the governing body, instead of elected representatives.
  • Tellurocracy
    Tellurocracy is a type of civilization or state system that is clearly associated with the development of land territories and consistent penetration into inland territories.
  • Territorial state
    The term territorial state has been used since the High Middle Ages to refer to a state, typically in the Holy Roman Empire, in which the sovereignty or 'claim to power' of the territorial prince, extended over a specific territory and its people.
  • Tetrarchy Tetrarchy
    The term tetrarchy describes any form of government where power is divided among four individuals, but in modern usage usually refers to the system instituted by Roman Emperor Diocletian in 293, marking the end of the Crisis of the Third Century and the recovery of the Roman Empire.
  • Thalassocracy Thalassocracy
    A thalassocracy is a state with primarily maritime realms, an empire at sea or a seaborne empire.
  • Theocracy
    Theocracy is a form of government in which a deity is the source from which all authority derives. The Oxford English Dictionary has this definition...
  • Theodemocracy Theodemocracy
    Theodemocracy was a theocratic political system that included elements of democracy. It was theorized by Joseph Smith, founder of the Latter Day Saint movement.
  • Timocracy
    A timocracy is a state where only property owners may participate in government.
  • Totalitarianism Totalitarianism
    Totalitarianism is a political system in which the state recognizes no limits to its authority and strives to regulate every aspect of public and private life wherever feasible.
  • Tribalism
    Tribalism is the state of being organized in or an advocate for a tribe or tribes. In terms of conformity, tribalism may also refer in popular cultural terms to a way of thinking or behaving in which people are loyal to their own tribe or social group.
  • Two-party system Two-party system
    A two-party system is a party system where two major political parties dominate the government. One of the two parties typically holds a majority in the legislature and is usually referred to as the majority or governing party while the other is the minority or opposition party.
  • Unitary parliamentary republic
    A unitary parliamentary republic refers to a unitary state with a republican form of government that is dependent upon the confidence of parliament.
  • Unitary state Unitary state
    A unitary state is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate. The majority of states in the world have a unitary system of government.
  • Unrechtsstaat
    The term Unrechtsstaat is a pejorative used to refer to a state that is not a Rechtsstaat, or a constitutional state in which the exercise of governmental power is not constrained by the law. It is used not only as a jurisprudential term but also as a political one.
  • Vetocracy
    A vetocracy refers to a dysfunctional system of governance whereby no single entity can acquire enough power to make decisions and take effective charge. The term points to an excessive ability or willingness to use the veto power within a government or institution.
  • Zemstvo Zemstvo
    A zemstvo was an institution of local government set up during the great liberal reforms carried out in Imperial Russia by Emperor Alexander II of Russia. Nikolay Milyutin elaborated the idea of the zemstva, and the first zemstvo laws went into effect in 1864.

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