Former Spanish Colonies

Former Spanish colonies

  • Algiers Algiers
    Algiers is the capital and largest city of Algeria. In 2011, the city's population was estimated to be around 3,500,000. An estimate puts the population of the larger metropolitan city to be around 5,000,000. Algiers is located on the Mediterranean Sea and in the north-central portion of Algeria.
  • Alta California Alta California
    Alta California, founded in 1769 by Gaspar de Portolà, was a polity of New Spain, and, after the Mexican War of Independence in 1822, a territory of Mexico. The region included all of the modern American states of California, Nevada, and Utah, and parts of Arizona, Wyoming, Colorado and New Mexico.
  • Annobón Province
    Annobón Province is a small province of Equatorial Guinea consisting of the island of Annobón and its associated islets in the Gulf of Guinea and Atlantic Ocean's Cameroon line.
  • Antillean Confederation Antillean Confederation
    The Confederación Antillana or Antillean Confederation was the vehement idea of Ramón Emeterio Betances about the need for natives of the Spanish Caribbean to unite into a regional entity that would seek to preserve the sovereignty and well-being of Cuba, the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico.
  • Argentina Argentina
    Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic, is a federal republic in the southern portion of South America.
  • Arizona Arizona
    Arizona is a state in the southwestern region of the United States. It is also part of the Western and the Mountain states. It is the sixth largest and the 14th most populous of the 50 states. Its capital and largest city is Phoenix. Arizona is one of the Four Corners states.
  • Béjaïa Béjaïa
    Béjaïa, formerly Bougie and Bugia, is a Mediterranean port city on the Gulf of Béjaïa in Algeria; it is the capital of Béjaïa Province, Kabylia. Béjaïa is the largest principally Kabyle-speaking city in the Kabylie region of Algeria.
  • Belize Belize
    Belize, formerly British Honduras, is an independent country on the eastern coast of Central America. Belize is bordered on the north by Mexico, on the south and west by Guatemala, and on the east by the Caribbean Sea. Its mainland is about long and wide.
  • Bioko Bioko
    Bioko is an island 32 km off the west coast of Africa, and the northernmost part of Equatorial Guinea. Its population was 334,463 at the 2015 Census and it covers an area of. The island is located off Cameroon, in the Bight of Bonny portion of the Gulf of Guinea.
  • Bolivia Bolivia
    Bolivia, officially known as the Plurinational State of Bolivia, is a landlocked country located in western-central South America. It is bordered to the north and east by Brazil, to the southeast by Paraguay, to the south by Argentina, to the southwest by Chile, and to the northwest by Peru.
  • Cape Juby Cape Juby
    Cape Juby is a cape on the coast of southern Morocco, near the border with Western Sahara, directly east of the Canary Islands.
  • Captaincy General of Chile Captaincy General of Chile
    The General Captaincy of Chile or Gobernación de Chile, was a colony of the Spanish Empire from 1541 to 1818, the year in which it declared itself independent, becoming the Republic of Chile.
  • Captaincy General of the Philippines Captaincy General of the Philippines
    The Captaincy General of the Philippines was an administrative district of the Spanish Empire. The Captaincy General encompassed the Spanish East Indies, which included the Philippine Islands and the Caroline Islands. It was founded in 1565 with the first permanent Spanish settlements.
  • Caroline Islands Caroline Islands
    The Caroline Islands are a widely scattered archipelago of tiny islands in the northwestern Pacific Ocean, to the north of New Guinea. Politically they are divided between the Federated States of Micronesia in the eastern part of the group, and Palau at the extreme western end.
  • Chile Chile
    Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. It borders Peru to the north, Bolivia to the northeast, Argentina to the east, and the Drake Passage in the far south.
  • Cipriano Barace
    Cipriano Barace was a Spanish Jesuit, missionary, and martyr.
  • Colombia
    Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America. Colombia shares a border to the northwest with Panama, to the east with Venezuela and Brazil and to the south with Ecuador and Peru.
  • Colonial Argentina Colonial Argentina
    Colonial Argentina is designated as the period of the History of Argentina when it was an overseas colony of the Spanish Empire. It begins in the precolumbian age of the indigenous peoples of Argentina, with the arrival of the first Spanish conqueror.
  • Colonial Venezuela Colonial Venezuela
  • Colony of Santiago
    Santiago was a Spanish colony of the Spanish West Indies and within the Viceroyalty of New Spain, in the Caribbean region. Its location is the present-day island and nation of Jamaica.
  • Colorado Colorado
    Colorado is a state in the United States encompassing most of the Southern Rocky Mountains as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau and the western edge of the Great Plains. Colorado is part of the Western United States, the Southwestern United States, and the Mountain States.
  • Costa Rica Costa Rica
    Costa Rica, officially the Republic of Costa Rica, is a country in Central America, bordered by Nicaragua to the north, Panama to the southeast, the Pacific Ocean to the west, the Caribbean Sea to the east, and Ecuador to the south of Cocos Island.
  • Cuba Cuba
    Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos. Cuba is located in the northern Caribbean where the Caribbean Sea, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Atlantic Ocean meet.
  • Dominican Republic Dominican Republic
    The Dominican Republic is a country located in the island of Hispaniola, in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean region.
  • Ecuador Ecuador
    Ecuador, officially the Republic of Ecuador, is a representative democratic republic in northwestern South America, bordered by Colombia on the north, Peru on the east and south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
  • Elobey, Annobón and Corisco
    Elobey, Annobón, and Corisco was a colonial administration of Spanish Africa, consisting of the island of Annobón, located in the Gulf of Guinea, and the small islands of Elobey Grande, Elobey Chico and Corisco, located in the Bay of the Mitémélé River.
  • El Salvador El Salvador
    El Salvador, officially the Republic of El Salvador, is the smallest and the most densely populated country in Central America.
  • Equatorial Guinea Equatorial Guinea
    Equatorial Guinea, officially the Republic of Equatorial Guinea, is a country located in Central Africa, with an area of. Formerly the colony of Spanish Guinea, its post-independence name evokes its location near both the Equator and the Gulf of Guinea.
  • Federated States of Micronesia Federated States of Micronesia
    The Federated States of Micronesia is an independent sovereign island nation and a United States associated state consisting of four states from west to east, Yap, Chuuk, Pohnpei and Kosraethat are spread across the Western Pacific Ocean.
  • Florida Florida
    Florida is a state in the southeastern region of the United States. It is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the north by Alabama and Georgia, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, and to the south by the Straits of Florida and Cuba.
  • Fort Santa Cruz, Oran Fort Santa Cruz, Oran
    Fort Santa Cruz, Oran, is one of the three forts in Oran, the second largest port city of Algeria; the other two forts are Fort de la Moune at the western end of the port and Fort St. Philippe, a replacement of the old castle of the Saints known in Spanish as Castillo de los Santos, at the centre...
  • General Captaincy of Chile
    The General Captaincy of Chile or Gobernación de Chile, was a colony of the Spanish Empire from 1541 to 1818, the year in which it declared itself independent, becoming the Republic of Chile.
  • German-Spanish Treaty (1899)
    The German–Spanish Treaty of 1899, signed by the German Empire and the Kingdom of Spain, involved Spain selling the vast majority of its remaining Pacific Ocean islands to Germany for 25 million pesetas.
  • Governorate of New Andalusia Governorate of New Andalusia
    New Andalusia Governorate was one of the colonial governorates of the Spanish Empire, located in southern South America.
  • Governorate of Paraguay Governorate of Paraguay
    The Governorate of Paraguay, originally called the Governorate of Guayrá, was a governorate of the Spanish Empire and part of the Viceroyalty of Peru. Its seat was the city of Asunción; its territory roughly encompassed the modern day country of Paraguay.
  • Guam Guam
    Guam is an unincorporated and organized territory of the United States situated in Micronesia in the western Pacific Ocean. The capital city of Guam is Hagåtña and the most populous city is Dededo. The inhabitants of Guam are called Guamanians, and they are American citizens by birth.
  • Guatemala Guatemala
    Guatemala, officially the Republic of Guatemala, is a country in Central America bordered by Mexico to the north and west, the Pacific Ocean to the southwest, Belize to the northeast, the Caribbean to the east, Honduras to the east and El Salvador to the southeast.
  • Haiti Haiti
    Haiti, officially the Republic of Haiti and formerly called Hayti, is a country located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea. It occupies the western three-eighths of the island, which it shares with the Dominican Republic.
  • Honduras Honduras
    Honduras, officially the Republic of Honduras, is a republic in Central America. It has at times been referred to as Spanish Honduras to differentiate it from British Honduras, which became modern-day Belize.
  • Ibero-America Ibero-America
    Ibero-America or Iberian America is a region in the Americas comprising countries or territories where Spanish or Portuguese are predominant languages, usually former territories of Portugal or Spain.
  • Ibero-American Summit Ibero-American Summit
    The Ibero-American Summit, formally the Ibero-American Conference of Heads of State and Governments, is a yearly meeting of the heads of government and state of the Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking nations of Europe and the Americas, as members of the Organization of Ibero-American States.
  • Ifni Ifni
    Ifni was a Spanish province on the Atlantic coast of Morocco, south of Agadir and across from the Canary Islands.
  • Insular Region (Equatorial Guinea) Insular Region (Equatorial Guinea)
    The Insular Region of Equatorial Guinea comprises the former Spanish territory of Fernando Po, together with Annobón island, the latter formerly part of the Spanish territory of Elobey, Annobón and Corisco, which was located in the Gulf of Guinea and in the Corisco Bay.
  • Jamaica Jamaica
    Jamaica is an island country situated in the Caribbean Sea, consisting of the third-largest island of the Greater Antilles. The island, in area, lies about south of Cuba, and west of Hispaniola. Jamaica is the fourth-largest island country in the Caribbean, by area.
  • La Isabela La Isabela
    La Isabela in Puerto Plata, Dominican Republic was one of the first European settlements in the Americas. La Navidad, established by Christopher Columbus a year earlier and just slightly to the west of La Isabela, in what is present day Haiti, is considered the first in the New World.
  • La Navidad
    La Navidad was a settlement that Christopher Columbus and his men established in present-day Haiti in 1492 from the remains of the Spanish ship, the Santa María.
  • Larache Larache
    Larache is an important harbour town in the region of Tanger-Tetouan-Al Hoceima in northern Morocco. The town was probably founded by the Banu Arous tribe, who gave it the name Araich Beni Arous.
  • Louisiana (New Spain) Louisiana (New Spain)
    Louisiana was the name of an administrative district of the Viceroyalty of New Spain from 1762 to 1802 that consisted of territory west of the Mississippi River basin, plus New Orleans. Spain acquired the territory from France, who had named it La Louisiane in honor of King Louis XIV in 1682.
  • Low Countries Low Countries
    The Low Countries is a coastal region in western Europe, consisting especially of the Netherlands and Belgium, and the low-lying delta of the Rhine, Meuse, Scheldt, and Ems rivers where much of the land is at or below sea level.
  • Maluku Islands Maluku Islands
    The Maluku Islands or the Moluccas are an archipelago within Indonesia. Tectonically they are located on the Halmahera Plate within the Molucca Sea Collision Zone. Geographically they are located east of Sulawesi, west of New Guinea, and north and east of Timor.
  • Mariana Islands Mariana Islands
    The Mariana Islands are a crescent-shaped archipelago comprising the summits of fifteen mostly dormant volcanic mountains in the western North Pacific Ocean, between the 12th and 21st parallels north and along the 145th meridian east.
  • Marshall Islands Marshall Islands
    The Marshall Islands, officially the Republic of the Marshall Islands, is an island country located near the equator in the Pacific Ocean, slightly west of the International Date Line. Geographically, the country is part of the larger island group of Micronesia.
  • Mers El Kébir
    Mers El Kébir is a port on the Mediterranean Sea, near Oran in Oran Province, northwest Algeria. It is famous for the attack on the French fleet in 1940, in the Second World War.
  • Mexico Mexico
    Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
  • Mosquito Coast Mosquito Coast
    The Mosquito Coast, also known as the Miskito Coast, historically comprised an area along the eastern coast of present-day Nicaragua and Honduras. It formed part of the Western Caribbean Zone. It was named after the local Miskito Amerindians and was long dominated by British interests.
  • New Kingdom of León New Kingdom of León
    The New Kingdom of León, was an administrative territory of the Spanish Empire, politically ruled by the Viceroyalty of New Spain. It was located in an area corresponding generally to the present-day northeastern Mexican state of Nuevo León.
  • New Mexico New Mexico
    New Mexico is a state in the southwestern region of the United States of America. It was admitted to the Union as the 47th state on January 6, 1912. It is usually considered one of the Mountain States.
  • New Spain New Spain
    New Spain was a colonial territory of the Spanish Empire in the New World north of the Isthmus of Panama. It was established following the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire in 1521, and following additional conquests, it was made a viceroyalty in 1535.
  • Nicaragua Nicaragua
    Nicaragua, officially the Republic of Nicaragua, is the largest country in the Central American isthmus, bordered by Honduras to the north, the Caribbean to the east, Costa Rica to the south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
  • Northern Mariana Islands Northern Mariana Islands
    The Northern Mariana Islands, officially the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, is an insular area and commonwealth of the United States consisting of 15 islands in the northwestern Pacific Ocean.
  • Nueva Cádiz Nueva Cádiz
    Nueva Cádiz is an archaeological site and former port town on Cubagua, off the coast of Venezuela. Established around 1515, it was one of the first settlements in the Americas.
  • Oran
    Oran is a coastal city that is located in the north-west of Algeria. It is considered the second most important city of Algeria after the capital Algiers, due to its commercial, industrial, and cultural importance. It is from Algiers.
  • Palau Palau
    Palau, officially the Republic of Palau, is an island country located in the western Pacific Ocean. The country contains approximately 340 islands, forming the western chain of the Caroline Islands in Micronesia, and has an area of. The most populous island is Koror.
  • Paraguay Paraguay
    Paraguay, officially the Republic of Paraguay, is a landlocked country in central South America, bordered by Argentina to the south and southwest, Brazil to the east and northeast, and Bolivia to the northwest.
  • Peru Peru
    Peru, officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America. It is bordered in the north by Ecuador and Colombia, in the east by Brazil, in the southeast by Bolivia, in the south by Chile, and in the west by the Pacific Ocean.
  • Philippines Philippines
    The Philippines, officially the Republic of the Philippines, is a unitary sovereign state and island country in Southeast Asia.
  • Puerto Rico Puerto Rico
    Puerto Rico, officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and briefly called Porto Rico, is an unincorporated territory of the United States located in the northeast Caribbean Sea.
  • Río de Oro Río de Oro
    Río de Oro is, with Saguia el-Hamra, one of the two territories that formed the Spanish province of Spanish Sahara after 1969; it had been taken as a Spanish colonial possession in the late 19th century. Its name seems to come from an east-west river which was supposed to have run through it.
  • Río Muni Río Muni
    Río Muni is the Continental Region of Equatorial Guinea, and comprises the mainland geographical region, covering 26,017 km². The name is derived from the Muni River.
  • Saguia el-Hamra
    Saguia el-Hamra is, with Río de Oro, one of the two territories that formed the Spanish province of Spanish Sahara after 1969. Its name comes from a waterway that goes through the capital. The wadi is inhabited by the Oulad Tidrarin Sahrawi tribe.
  • Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic
    The Sahrawi Republic, officially the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, is a partially recognized state that controls a thin strip of area in the Western Sahara region and claims sovereignty over the entire territory of Western Sahara, a former Spanish colony.
  • Santa Cruz de la Mar Pequeña
    Santa Cruz de la Mar Pequeña was a Spanish settlement on the south-western coast of Morocco, across from the Canary Islands, founded in 1476 as a trading post with a fortress. It was located close to a lagoon not far off Cape Juby.
  • Spanish colonization of the Americas Spanish colonization of the Americas
  • Spanish East Indies Spanish East Indies
    The Spanish East Indies were the Spanish territories in Asia-Pacific from 1565 until 1899. They comprised the Philippines, the Mariana Islands, the Caroline Islands, and briefly also included Spanish Formosa and parts of the Spice Islands.
  • Spanish Formosa Spanish Formosa
    Spanish Formosa was a Spanish colony established in the north of Taiwan from 1626 to 1642.
  • Spanish Guinea Spanish Guinea
    Spanish Guinea was a set of insular and continental territories controlled by Spain since 1778 in the Gulf of Guinea and on the Bight of Bonny, in Central Africa. It gained independence in 1968 and is known as Equatorial Guinea.
  • Spanish Guyana
    Guayana Province was a former province of Spanish Colonial Venezuela and independent Venezuela, in northern South America.
  • Spanish Morocco
    The Spanish protectorate in Morocco was established on 27 November 1912 by a treaty between France and Spain that converted the Spanish sphere of influence into a formal protectorate.
  • Spanish Netherlands Spanish Netherlands
    Spanish Netherlands; Pays-Bas espagnols was the collective name of States of the Holy Roman Empire in the Low Countries, held in personal union by the Spanish Crown from 1581 to 1714.
  • Spanish protectorate in Morocco Spanish protectorate in Morocco
    The Spanish protectorate in Morocco was established on 27 November 1912 by a treaty between France and Spain that converted the Spanish sphere of influence in Morocco into a formal protectorate.
  • Spanish Sahara Spanish Sahara
    Spanish Sahara officially the Overseas Province of the Spanish Sahara, was the name used for the modern territory of Western Sahara when it was occupied and ruled as a territory by Spain between 1884 and 1975.
  • Spanish West Africa Spanish West Africa
    Spanish West Africa is a former possession in the western Sahara Desert that Spain ruled after giving much of its former northwestern African possessions to Morocco. It was created in December 1946, and combined Ifni, Cape Juby and Spanish Sahara.
  • Spanish West Indies Spanish West Indies
    The Spanish West Indies or Spanish Antilles was the former name of the Spanish colonies in the Caribbean. It became a territory of the Viceroyalty of New Spain when the viceroyalty was created in 1535.
  • Spice Islands
    The Maluku Islands or the Moluccas are an archipelago within Indonesia. Tectonically they are located on the Halmahera Plate within the Molucca Sea Collision Zone. Geographically they are located east of Sulawesi, west of New Guinea, and north and east of Timor.
  • The Californias The Californias
    The Californias, or Province of the Californias, or Las Californias, Provincia de las Californias, was the northwestern-most area of the Viceroyalty of New Spain.
  • Trinidad Trinidad
    Trinidad is the larger and more populous of the two major islands of Trinidad and Tobago. The island lies off the northeastern coast of Venezuela and sits on the continental shelf of South America.
  • Trinidad and Tobago Trinidad and Tobago
    Trinidad and Tobago, officially the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, is a twin island country situated off the northern edge of the South American mainland, lying just off the coast of northeastern Venezuela and south of Grenada.
  • Uruguay Uruguay
    Uruguay, officially the Oriental Republic of Uruguay, is a sovereign state in the southeastern region of South America. It borders Argentina to its west and Brazil to its north and east, with the Río de la Plata to the south and the Atlantic Ocean to the southeast.
  • Utah Utah
    Utah is a state in the western United States. It became the 45th state admitted to the U.S. on January 4, 1896. Utah is the 13th-largest by area, 31st-most-populous, and 10th-least-densely populated of the 50 United States.
  • Venezuela Venezuela
    Venezuela, officially the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, is a federal republic located on the northern coast of South America.
  • Viceroyalty of New Granada Viceroyalty of New Granada
    The Viceroyalty of New Granada was the name given on 27 May 1717, to the jurisdiction of the Spanish Empire in northern South America, corresponding to modern Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, and Venezuela.
  • Viceroyalty of New Spain
    New Spain was a colonial territory of the Spanish Empire, in the New World north of the Isthmus of Panama. It was established following the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire in 1521, and following additional conquests, it was made a viceroyalty in 1535.
  • Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata
    The Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata was the last to be organized and also the shortest-lived of the Viceroyalties of the Spanish Empire in the Americas.
  • Western Sahara Western Sahara
    Western Sahara is a disputed territory in the Maghreb region of North Africa, partially controlled by the self-proclaimed Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic and partially Moroccan-occupied, bordered by Morocco proper to the north, Algeria to the northeast, Mauritania to the east and south, and the...
  • West Florida West Florida
    West Florida was a region on the north shore of the Gulf of Mexico which underwent several boundary and sovereignty changes during its history. The province was established by the British in 1763 out of lands ceded from the Spanish and French.

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